Since Vulkan is a platform agnostic API, it can not interface directly with the window system on its own. To establish the connection between Vulkan and the window system to present results to the screen, we need to use the WSI (Window System Integration) extensions. In this chapter we'll discuss the first one, which is VK_KHR_surface. It exposes a VkSurfaceKHR object that represents an abstract type of surface to present rendered images to. The surface in our program will be backed by the window that we've already opened with GLFW.

The VK_KHR_surface extension is an instance level extension and we've actually already enabled it, because it's included in the list returned by glfwGetRequiredInstanceExtensions. The list also includes some other WSI extensions that we'll use in the next couple of chapters.

The window surface needs to be created right after the instance creation, because it can actually influence the physical device selection. The reason we postponed this is because window surfaces are part of the larger topic of render targets and presentation for which the explanation would have cluttered the basic setup. It should also be noted that window surfaces are an entirely optional component in Vulkan, if you just need off-screen rendering. Vulkan allows you to do that without hacks like creating an invisible window (necessary for OpenGL).

Window surface creation

Start by adding a surface class member right below the debug callback.

VkSurfaceKHR surface;

Although the VkSurfaceKHR object and its usage is platform agnostic, its creation isn't because it depends on window system details. For example, it needs the HWND and HMODULE handles on Windows. Therefore there is a platform-specific addition to the extension, which on Windows is called VK_KHR_win32_surface and is also automatically included in the list from glfwGetRequiredInstanceExtensions.

I will demonstrate how this platform specific extension can be used to create a surface on Windows, but we won't actually use it in this tutorial. It doesn't make any sense to use a library like GLFW and then proceed to use platform-specific code anyway. GLFW actually has glfwCreateWindowSurface that handles the platform differences for us. Still, it's good to see what it does behind the scenes before we start relying on it.

Because a window surface is a Vulkan object, it comes with a VkWin32SurfaceCreateInfoKHR struct that needs to be filled in. It has two important parameters: hwnd and hinstance. These are the handles to the window and the process.

VkWin32SurfaceCreateInfoKHR createInfo;
createInfo.sType = VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_WIN32_SURFACE_CREATE_INFO_KHR;
createInfo.hwnd = glfwGetWin32Window(window);
createInfo.hinstance = GetModuleHandle(nullptr);

The glfwGetWin32Window function is used to get the raw HWND from the GLFW window object. The GetModuleHandle call returns the HINSTANCE handle of the current process.

After that the surface can be created with vkCreateWin32SurfaceKHR, which needs to be explicitly loaded again. Other than that the call is trivial and includes a parameter for the instance, surface creation details, custom allocators and the variable for the surface handle to be stored in.

auto CreateWin32SurfaceKHR = (PFN_vkCreateWin32SurfaceKHR) vkGetInstanceProcAddr(instance, "vkCreateWin32SurfaceKHR");

if (!CreateWin32SurfaceKHR || CreateWin32SurfaceKHR(instance, &createInfo, nullptr, &surface) != VK_SUCCESS) {
    throw std::runtime_error("failed to create window surface!");
}

The process is similar for other platforms like Linux, where vkCreateXcbSurfaceKHR takes an XCB connection and window as creation details with X11.

The glfwCreateWindowSurface function performs exactly this operation with a different implementation for each platform. We'll now integrate it into our program. Add a function createSurface to be called from initVulkan right after instance creation and setupDebugCallback.

void initVulkan() {
    createInstance();
    setupDebugCallback();
    createSurface();
    pickPhysicalDevice();
    createLogicalDevice();
}

void createSurface() {

}

The GLFW call takes simple parameters instead of a struct which makes the implementation of the function very straightforward:

void createSurface() {
    if (glfwCreateWindowSurface(instance, window, nullptr, &surface) != VK_SUCCESS) {
        throw std::runtime_error("failed to create window surface!");
    }
}

The parameters are the VkInstance, GLFW window pointer, custom allocators and pointer to VkSurfaceKHR variable. It simply passes through the VkResult from the relevant platform call. GLFW doesn't offer a special function for destroying a surface, but that can easily be done through the original API:

void cleanup() {
        ...
        vkDestroySurfaceKHR(instance, surface, nullptr);
        vkDestroyInstance(instance, nullptr);
        ...
    }

Make sure that the surface is destroyed before the instance.

Querying for presentation support

Although the Vulkan implementation may support window system integration, that does not mean that every device in the system supports it. Therefore we need to extend isDeviceSuitable to ensure that a device can present images to the surface we created. Since the presentation is a queue-specific feature, the problem is actually about finding a queue family that supports presenting to the surface we created.

It's actually possible that the queue families supporting drawing commands and the ones supporting presentation do not overlap. Therefore we have to take into account that there could be a distinct presentation queue by modifying the QueueFamilyIndices structure:

struct QueueFamilyIndices {
    int graphicsFamily = -1;
    int presentFamily = -1;

    bool isComplete() {
        return graphicsFamily >= 0 && presentFamily >= 0;
    }
};

Next, we'll modify the findQueueFamilies function to look for a queue family that has the capability of presenting to our window surface. The function to check for that is vkGetPhysicalDeviceSurfaceSupportKHR, which takes the physical device, queue family index and surface as parameters. Add a call to it in the same loop as the VK_QUEUE_GRAPHICS_BIT:

VkBool32 presentSupport = false;
vkGetPhysicalDeviceSurfaceSupportKHR(device, i, surface, &presentSupport);

Then simply check the value of the boolean and store the presentation family queue index:

if (queueFamily.queueCount > 0 && presentSupport) {
    indices.presentFamily = i;
}

Note that it's very likely that these end up being the same queue family after all, but throughout the program we will treat them as if they were separate queues for a uniform approach. Nevertheless, you could add logic to explicitly prefer a physical device that supports drawing and presentation in the same queue for improved performance.

Creating the presentation queue

The one thing that remains is modifying the logical device creation procedure to create the presentation queue and retrieve the VkQueue handle. Add a member variable for the handle:

VkQueue presentQueue;

Next, we need to have multiple VkDeviceQueueCreateInfo structs to create a queue from both families. An elegant way to do that is to create a set of all unique queue families that are necessary for the required queues:

#include <set>

...

QueueFamilyIndices indices = findQueueFamilies(physicalDevice);

std::vector<VkDeviceQueueCreateInfo> queueCreateInfos;
std::set<int> uniqueQueueFamilies = {indices.graphicsFamily, indices.presentFamily};

float queuePriority = 1.0f;
for (int queueFamily : uniqueQueueFamilies) {
    VkDeviceQueueCreateInfo queueCreateInfo = {};
    queueCreateInfo.sType = VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_DEVICE_QUEUE_CREATE_INFO;
    queueCreateInfo.queueFamilyIndex = queueFamily;
    queueCreateInfo.queueCount = 1;
    queueCreateInfo.pQueuePriorities = &queuePriority;
    queueCreateInfos.push_back(queueCreateInfo);
}

And modify VkDeviceCreateInfo to point to the vector:

createInfo.queueCreateInfoCount = static_cast<uint32_t>(queueCreateInfos.size());
createInfo.pQueueCreateInfos = queueCreateInfos.data();

If the queue families are the same, then we only need to pass its index once. Finally, add a call to retrieve the queue handle:

vkGetDeviceQueue(device, indices.presentFamily, 0, &presentQueue);

In case the queue families are the same, the two handles will most likely have the same value now. In the next chapter we're going to look at swap chains and how they give us the ability to present images to the surface.

C++ code