#define GLFW_INCLUDE_VULKAN
#include <GLFW/glfw3.h>

#define GLM_FORCE_RADIANS
#define GLM_FORCE_DEPTH_ZERO_TO_ONE
#define GLM_ENABLE_EXPERIMENTAL
#include <glm/glm.hpp>
#include <glm/gtc/matrix_transform.hpp>
#include <glm/gtx/hash.hpp>

#define STB_IMAGE_IMPLEMENTATION
#include <stb_image.h>

#define TINYOBJLOADER_IMPLEMENTATION
#include <tiny_obj_loader.h>

#include <iostream>
#include <fstream>
#include <stdexcept>
#include <algorithm>
#include <chrono>
#include <vector>
#include <cstring>
#include <cstdlib>
#include <array>
#include <optional>
#include <set>
#include <unordered_map>

const int WIDTH = 800;
const int HEIGHT = 600;

const std::string MODEL_PATH = "models/chalet.obj";
const std::string TEXTURE_PATH = "textures/chalet.jpg";

const int MAX_FRAMES_IN_FLIGHT = 2;

const std::vector<const char*> validationLayers = {
    "VK_LAYER_KHRONOS_validation"
};

const std::vector<const char*> deviceExtensions = {
    VK_KHR_SWAPCHAIN_EXTENSION_NAME
};

#ifdef NDEBUG
const bool enableValidationLayers = false;
#else
const bool enableValidationLayers = true;
#endif

VkResult CreateDebugUtilsMessengerEXT(VkInstance instance, const VkDebugUtilsMessengerCreateInfoEXT* pCreateInfo, const VkAllocationCallbacks* pAllocator, VkDebugUtilsMessengerEXT* pDebugMessenger) {
    auto func = (PFN_vkCreateDebugUtilsMessengerEXT) vkGetInstanceProcAddr(instance, "vkCreateDebugUtilsMessengerEXT");
    if (func != nullptr) {
        return func(instance, pCreateInfo, pAllocator, pDebugMessenger);
    } else {
        return VK_ERROR_EXTENSION_NOT_PRESENT;
    }
}

void DestroyDebugUtilsMessengerEXT(VkInstance instance, VkDebugUtilsMessengerEXT debugMessenger, const VkAllocationCallbacks* pAllocator) {
    auto func = (PFN_vkDestroyDebugUtilsMessengerEXT) vkGetInstanceProcAddr(instance, "vkDestroyDebugUtilsMessengerEXT");
    if (func != nullptr) {
        func(instance, debugMessenger, pAllocator);
    }
}

struct QueueFamilyIndices {
    std::optional<uint32_t> graphicsFamily;
    std::optional<uint32_t> presentFamily;

    bool isComplete() {
        return graphicsFamily.has_value() && presentFamily.has_value();
    }
};

struct SwapChainSupportDetails {
    VkSurfaceCapabilitiesKHR capabilities;
    std::vector<VkSurfaceFormatKHR> formats;
    std::vector<VkPresentModeKHR> presentModes;
};

struct Vertex {
    glm::vec3 pos;
    glm::vec3 color;
    glm::vec2 texCoord;

    static VkVertexInputBindingDescription getBindingDescription() {
        VkVertexInputBindingDescription bindingDescription = {};
        bindingDescription.binding = 0;
        bindingDescription.stride = sizeof(Vertex);
        bindingDescription.inputRate = VK_VERTEX_INPUT_RATE_VERTEX;

        return bindingDescription;
    }

    static std::array<VkVertexInputAttributeDescription, 3> getAttributeDescriptions() {
        std::array<VkVertexInputAttributeDescription, 3> attributeDescriptions = {};

        attributeDescriptions[0].binding = 0;
        attributeDescriptions[0].location = 0;
        attributeDescriptions[0].format = VK_FORMAT_R32G32B32_SFLOAT;
        attributeDescriptions[0].offset = offsetof(Vertex, pos);

        attributeDescriptions[1].binding = 0;
        attributeDescriptions[1].location = 1;
        attributeDescriptions[1].format = VK_FORMAT_R32G32B32_SFLOAT;
        attributeDescriptions[1].offset = offsetof(Vertex, color);

        attributeDescriptions[2].binding = 0;
        attributeDescriptions[2].location = 2;
        attributeDescriptions[2].format = VK_FORMAT_R32G32_SFLOAT;
        attributeDescriptions[2].offset = offsetof(Vertex, texCoord);

        return attributeDescriptions;
    }

    bool operator==(const Vertex& other) const {
        return pos == other.pos && color == other.color && texCoord == other.texCoord;
    }
};

namespace std {
    template<> struct hash<Vertex> {
        size_t operator()(Vertex const& vertex) const {
            return ((hash<glm::vec3>()(vertex.pos) ^ (hash<glm::vec3>()(vertex.color) << 1)) >> 1) ^ (hash<glm::vec2>()(vertex.texCoord) << 1);
        }
    };
}

struct UniformBufferObject {
    alignas(16) glm::mat4 model;
    alignas(16) glm::mat4 view;
    alignas(16) glm::mat4 proj;
};

class HelloTriangleApplication {
public:
    void run() {
        initWindow();
        initVulkan();
        mainLoop();
        cleanup();
    }

private:
    GLFWwindow* window;

    VkInstance instance;
    VkDebugUtilsMessengerEXT debugMessenger;
    VkSurfaceKHR surface;

    VkPhysicalDevice physicalDevice = VK_NULL_HANDLE;
    VkDevice device;

    VkQueue graphicsQueue;
    VkQueue presentQueue;

    VkSwapchainKHR swapChain;
    std::vector<VkImage> swapChainImages;
    VkFormat swapChainImageFormat;
    VkExtent2D swapChainExtent;
    std::vector<VkImageView> swapChainImageViews;
    std::vector<VkFramebuffer> swapChainFramebuffers;

    VkRenderPass renderPass;
    VkDescriptorSetLayout descriptorSetLayout;
    VkPipelineLayout pipelineLayout;
    VkPipeline graphicsPipeline;

    VkCommandPool commandPool;

    VkImage depthImage;
    VkDeviceMemory depthImageMemory;
    VkImageView depthImageView;

    uint32_t mipLevels;
    VkImage textureImage;
    VkDeviceMemory textureImageMemory;
    VkImageView textureImageView;
    VkSampler textureSampler;

    std::vector<Vertex> vertices;
    std::vector<uint32_t> indices;
    VkBuffer vertexBuffer;
    VkDeviceMemory vertexBufferMemory;
    VkBuffer indexBuffer;
    VkDeviceMemory indexBufferMemory;

    std::vector<VkBuffer> uniformBuffers;
    std::vector<VkDeviceMemory> uniformBuffersMemory;

    VkDescriptorPool descriptorPool;
    std::vector<VkDescriptorSet> descriptorSets;

    std::vector<VkCommandBuffer> commandBuffers;

    std::vector<VkSemaphore> imageAvailableSemaphores;
    std::vector<VkSemaphore> renderFinishedSemaphores;
    std::vector<VkFence> inFlightFences;
    size_t currentFrame = 0;

    bool framebufferResized = false;

    void initWindow() {
        glfwInit();

        glfwWindowHint(GLFW_CLIENT_API, GLFW_NO_API);

        window = glfwCreateWindow(WIDTH, HEIGHT, "Vulkan", nullptr, nullptr);
        glfwSetWindowUserPointer(window, this);
        glfwSetFramebufferSizeCallback(window, framebufferResizeCallback);
    }

    static void framebufferResizeCallback(GLFWwindow* window, int width, int height) {
        auto app = reinterpret_cast<HelloTriangleApplication*>(glfwGetWindowUserPointer(window));
        app->framebufferResized = true;
    }

    void initVulkan() {
        createInstance();
        setupDebugMessenger();
        createSurface();
        pickPhysicalDevice();
        createLogicalDevice();
        createSwapChain();
        createImageViews();
        createRenderPass();
        createDescriptorSetLayout();
        createGraphicsPipeline();
        createCommandPool();
        createDepthResources();
        createFramebuffers();
        createTextureImage();
        createTextureImageView();
        createTextureSampler();
        loadModel();
        createVertexBuffer();
        createIndexBuffer();
        createUniformBuffers();
        createDescriptorPool();
        createDescriptorSets();
        createCommandBuffers();
        createSyncObjects();
    }

    void mainLoop() {
        while (!glfwWindowShouldClose(window)) {
            glfwPollEvents();
            drawFrame();
        }

        vkDeviceWaitIdle(device);
    }

    void cleanupSwapChain() {
        vkDestroyImageView(device, depthImageView, nullptr);
        vkDestroyImage(device, depthImage, nullptr);
        vkFreeMemory(device, depthImageMemory, nullptr);

        for (auto framebuffer : swapChainFramebuffers) {
            vkDestroyFramebuffer(device, framebuffer, nullptr);
        }

        vkFreeCommandBuffers(device, commandPool, static_cast<uint32_t>(commandBuffers.size()), commandBuffers.data());

        vkDestroyPipeline(device, graphicsPipeline, nullptr);
        vkDestroyPipelineLayout(device, pipelineLayout, nullptr);
        vkDestroyRenderPass(device, renderPass, nullptr);

        for (auto imageView : swapChainImageViews) {
            vkDestroyImageView(device, imageView, nullptr);
        }

        vkDestroySwapchainKHR(device, swapChain, nullptr);

        for (size_t i = 0; i < swapChainImages.size(); i++) {
            vkDestroyBuffer(device, uniformBuffers[i], nullptr);
            vkFreeMemory(device, uniformBuffersMemory[i], nullptr);
        }

        vkDestroyDescriptorPool(device, descriptorPool, nullptr);
    }

    void cleanup() {
        cleanupSwapChain();

        vkDestroySampler(device, textureSampler, nullptr);
        vkDestroyImageView(device, textureImageView, nullptr);

        vkDestroyImage(device, textureImage, nullptr);
        vkFreeMemory(device, textureImageMemory, nullptr);

        vkDestroyDescriptorSetLayout(device, descriptorSetLayout, nullptr);

        vkDestroyBuffer(device, indexBuffer, nullptr);
        vkFreeMemory(device, indexBufferMemory, nullptr);

        vkDestroyBuffer(device, vertexBuffer, nullptr);
        vkFreeMemory(device, vertexBufferMemory, nullptr);

        for (size_t i = 0; i < MAX_FRAMES_IN_FLIGHT; i++) {
            vkDestroySemaphore(device, renderFinishedSemaphores[i], nullptr);
            vkDestroySemaphore(device, imageAvailableSemaphores[i], nullptr);
            vkDestroyFence(device, inFlightFences[i], nullptr);
        }

        vkDestroyCommandPool(device, commandPool, nullptr);

        vkDestroyDevice(device, nullptr);

        if (enableValidationLayers) {
            DestroyDebugUtilsMessengerEXT(instance, debugMessenger, nullptr);
        }

        vkDestroySurfaceKHR(instance, surface, nullptr);
        vkDestroyInstance(instance, nullptr);

        glfwDestroyWindow(window);

        glfwTerminate();
    }

    void recreateSwapChain() {
        int width = 0, height = 0;
        while (width == 0 || height == 0) {
            glfwGetFramebufferSize(window, &width, &height);
            glfwWaitEvents();
        }

        vkDeviceWaitIdle(device);

        cleanupSwapChain();

        createSwapChain();
        createImageViews();
        createRenderPass();
        createGraphicsPipeline();
        createDepthResources();
        createFramebuffers();
        createUniformBuffers();
        createDescriptorPool();
        createDescriptorSets();
        createCommandBuffers();
    }

    void createInstance() {
        if (enableValidationLayers && !checkValidationLayerSupport()) {
            throw std::runtime_error("validation layers requested, but not available!");
        }

        VkApplicationInfo appInfo = {};
        appInfo.sType = VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_APPLICATION_INFO;
        appInfo.pApplicationName = "Hello Triangle";
        appInfo.applicationVersion = VK_MAKE_VERSION(1, 0, 0);
        appInfo.pEngineName = "No Engine";
        appInfo.engineVersion = VK_MAKE_VERSION(1, 0, 0);
        appInfo.apiVersion = VK_API_VERSION_1_0;

        VkInstanceCreateInfo createInfo = {};
        createInfo.sType = VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_INSTANCE_CREATE_INFO;
        createInfo.pApplicationInfo = &appInfo;

        auto extensions = getRequiredExtensions();
        createInfo.enabledExtensionCount = static_cast<uint32_t>(extensions.size());
        createInfo.ppEnabledExtensionNames = extensions.data();

        VkDebugUtilsMessengerCreateInfoEXT debugCreateInfo;
        if (enableValidationLayers) {
            createInfo.enabledLayerCount = static_cast<uint32_t>(validationLayers.size());
            createInfo.ppEnabledLayerNames = validationLayers.data();

            populateDebugMessengerCreateInfo(debugCreateInfo);
            createInfo.pNext = (VkDebugUtilsMessengerCreateInfoEXT*) &debugCreateInfo;
        } else {
            createInfo.enabledLayerCount = 0;

            createInfo.pNext = nullptr;
        }

        if (vkCreateInstance(&createInfo, nullptr, &instance) != VK_SUCCESS) {
            throw std::runtime_error("failed to create instance!");
        }
    }

    void populateDebugMessengerCreateInfo(VkDebugUtilsMessengerCreateInfoEXT& createInfo) {
        createInfo = {};
        createInfo.sType = VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_DEBUG_UTILS_MESSENGER_CREATE_INFO_EXT;
        createInfo.messageSeverity = VK_DEBUG_UTILS_MESSAGE_SEVERITY_VERBOSE_BIT_EXT | VK_DEBUG_UTILS_MESSAGE_SEVERITY_WARNING_BIT_EXT | VK_DEBUG_UTILS_MESSAGE_SEVERITY_ERROR_BIT_EXT;
        createInfo.messageType = VK_DEBUG_UTILS_MESSAGE_TYPE_GENERAL_BIT_EXT | VK_DEBUG_UTILS_MESSAGE_TYPE_VALIDATION_BIT_EXT | VK_DEBUG_UTILS_MESSAGE_TYPE_PERFORMANCE_BIT_EXT;
        createInfo.pfnUserCallback = debugCallback;
    }

    void setupDebugMessenger() {
        if (!enableValidationLayers) return;

        VkDebugUtilsMessengerCreateInfoEXT createInfo;
        populateDebugMessengerCreateInfo(createInfo);

        if (CreateDebugUtilsMessengerEXT(instance, &createInfo, nullptr, &debugMessenger) != VK_SUCCESS) {
            throw std::runtime_error("failed to set up debug messenger!");
        }
    }

    void createSurface() {
        if (glfwCreateWindowSurface(instance, window, nullptr, &surface) != VK_SUCCESS) {
            throw std::runtime_error("failed to create window surface!");
        }
    }

    void pickPhysicalDevice() {
        uint32_t deviceCount = 0;
        vkEnumeratePhysicalDevices(instance, &deviceCount, nullptr);

        if (deviceCount == 0) {
            throw std::runtime_error("failed to find GPUs with Vulkan support!");
        }

        std::vector<VkPhysicalDevice> devices(deviceCount);
        vkEnumeratePhysicalDevices(instance, &deviceCount, devices.data());

        for (const auto& device : devices) {
            if (isDeviceSuitable(device)) {
                physicalDevice = device;
                break;
            }
        }

        if (physicalDevice == VK_NULL_HANDLE) {
            throw std::runtime_error("failed to find a suitable GPU!");
        }
    }

    void createLogicalDevice() {
        QueueFamilyIndices indices = findQueueFamilies(physicalDevice);

        std::vector<VkDeviceQueueCreateInfo> queueCreateInfos;
        std::set<uint32_t> uniqueQueueFamilies = {indices.graphicsFamily.value(), indices.presentFamily.value()};

        float queuePriority = 1.0f;
        for (uint32_t queueFamily : uniqueQueueFamilies) {
            VkDeviceQueueCreateInfo queueCreateInfo = {};
            queueCreateInfo.sType = VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_DEVICE_QUEUE_CREATE_INFO;
            queueCreateInfo.queueFamilyIndex = queueFamily;
            queueCreateInfo.queueCount = 1;
            queueCreateInfo.pQueuePriorities = &queuePriority;
            queueCreateInfos.push_back(queueCreateInfo);
        }

        VkPhysicalDeviceFeatures deviceFeatures = {};
        deviceFeatures.samplerAnisotropy = VK_TRUE;

        VkDeviceCreateInfo createInfo = {};
        createInfo.sType = VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_DEVICE_CREATE_INFO;

        createInfo.queueCreateInfoCount = static_cast<uint32_t>(queueCreateInfos.size());
        createInfo.pQueueCreateInfos = queueCreateInfos.data();

        createInfo.pEnabledFeatures = &deviceFeatures;

        createInfo.enabledExtensionCount = static_cast<uint32_t>(deviceExtensions.size());
        createInfo.ppEnabledExtensionNames = deviceExtensions.data();

        if (enableValidationLayers) {
            createInfo.enabledLayerCount = static_cast<uint32_t>(validationLayers.size());
            createInfo.ppEnabledLayerNames = validationLayers.data();
        } else {
            createInfo.enabledLayerCount = 0;
        }

        if (vkCreateDevice(physicalDevice, &createInfo, nullptr, &device) != VK_SUCCESS) {
            throw std::runtime_error("failed to create logical device!");
        }

        vkGetDeviceQueue(device, indices.graphicsFamily.value(), 0, &graphicsQueue);
        vkGetDeviceQueue(device, indices.presentFamily.value(), 0, &presentQueue);
    }

    void createSwapChain() {
        SwapChainSupportDetails swapChainSupport = querySwapChainSupport(physicalDevice);

        VkSurfaceFormatKHR surfaceFormat = chooseSwapSurfaceFormat(swapChainSupport.formats);
        VkPresentModeKHR presentMode = chooseSwapPresentMode(swapChainSupport.presentModes);
        VkExtent2D extent = chooseSwapExtent(swapChainSupport.capabilities);

        uint32_t imageCount = swapChainSupport.capabilities.minImageCount + 1;
        if (swapChainSupport.capabilities.maxImageCount > 0 && imageCount > swapChainSupport.capabilities.maxImageCount) {
            imageCount = swapChainSupport.capabilities.maxImageCount;
        }

        VkSwapchainCreateInfoKHR createInfo = {};
        createInfo.sType = VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_SWAPCHAIN_CREATE_INFO_KHR;
        createInfo.surface = surface;

        createInfo.minImageCount = imageCount;
        createInfo.imageFormat = surfaceFormat.format;
        createInfo.imageColorSpace = surfaceFormat.colorSpace;
        createInfo.imageExtent = extent;
        createInfo.imageArrayLayers = 1;
        createInfo.imageUsage = VK_IMAGE_USAGE_COLOR_ATTACHMENT_BIT;

        QueueFamilyIndices indices = findQueueFamilies(physicalDevice);
        uint32_t queueFamilyIndices[] = {indices.graphicsFamily.value(), indices.presentFamily.value()};

        if (indices.graphicsFamily != indices.presentFamily) {
            createInfo.imageSharingMode = VK_SHARING_MODE_CONCURRENT;
            createInfo.queueFamilyIndexCount = 2;
            createInfo.pQueueFamilyIndices = queueFamilyIndices;
        } else {
            createInfo.imageSharingMode = VK_SHARING_MODE_EXCLUSIVE;
        }

        createInfo.preTransform = swapChainSupport.capabilities.currentTransform;
        createInfo.compositeAlpha = VK_COMPOSITE_ALPHA_OPAQUE_BIT_KHR;
        createInfo.presentMode = presentMode;
        createInfo.clipped = VK_TRUE;

        if (vkCreateSwapchainKHR(device, &createInfo, nullptr, &swapChain) != VK_SUCCESS) {
            throw std::runtime_error("failed to create swap chain!");
        }

        vkGetSwapchainImagesKHR(device, swapChain, &imageCount, nullptr);
        swapChainImages.resize(imageCount);
        vkGetSwapchainImagesKHR(device, swapChain, &imageCount, swapChainImages.data());

        swapChainImageFormat = surfaceFormat.format;
        swapChainExtent = extent;
    }

    void createImageViews() {
        swapChainImageViews.resize(swapChainImages.size());

        for (uint32_t i = 0; i < swapChainImages.size(); i++) {
            swapChainImageViews[i] = createImageView(swapChainImages[i], swapChainImageFormat, VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_COLOR_BIT, 1);
        }
    }

    void createRenderPass() {
        VkAttachmentDescription colorAttachment = {};
        colorAttachment.format = swapChainImageFormat;
        colorAttachment.samples = VK_SAMPLE_COUNT_1_BIT;
        colorAttachment.loadOp = VK_ATTACHMENT_LOAD_OP_CLEAR;
        colorAttachment.storeOp = VK_ATTACHMENT_STORE_OP_STORE;
        colorAttachment.stencilLoadOp = VK_ATTACHMENT_LOAD_OP_DONT_CARE;
        colorAttachment.stencilStoreOp = VK_ATTACHMENT_STORE_OP_DONT_CARE;
        colorAttachment.initialLayout = VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_UNDEFINED;
        colorAttachment.finalLayout = VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_PRESENT_SRC_KHR;

        VkAttachmentDescription depthAttachment = {};
        depthAttachment.format = findDepthFormat();
        depthAttachment.samples = VK_SAMPLE_COUNT_1_BIT;
        depthAttachment.loadOp = VK_ATTACHMENT_LOAD_OP_CLEAR;
        depthAttachment.storeOp = VK_ATTACHMENT_STORE_OP_DONT_CARE;
        depthAttachment.stencilLoadOp = VK_ATTACHMENT_LOAD_OP_DONT_CARE;
        depthAttachment.stencilStoreOp = VK_ATTACHMENT_STORE_OP_DONT_CARE;
        depthAttachment.initialLayout = VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_UNDEFINED;
        depthAttachment.finalLayout = VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_DEPTH_STENCIL_ATTACHMENT_OPTIMAL;

        VkAttachmentReference colorAttachmentRef = {};
        colorAttachmentRef.attachment = 0;
        colorAttachmentRef.layout = VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_COLOR_ATTACHMENT_OPTIMAL;

        VkAttachmentReference depthAttachmentRef = {};
        depthAttachmentRef.attachment = 1;
        depthAttachmentRef.layout = VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_DEPTH_STENCIL_ATTACHMENT_OPTIMAL;

        VkSubpassDescription subpass = {};
        subpass.pipelineBindPoint = VK_PIPELINE_BIND_POINT_GRAPHICS;
        subpass.colorAttachmentCount = 1;
        subpass.pColorAttachments = &colorAttachmentRef;
        subpass.pDepthStencilAttachment = &depthAttachmentRef;

        VkSubpassDependency dependency = {};
        dependency.srcSubpass = VK_SUBPASS_EXTERNAL;
        dependency.dstSubpass = 0;
        dependency.srcStageMask = VK_PIPELINE_STAGE_COLOR_ATTACHMENT_OUTPUT_BIT;
        dependency.srcAccessMask = 0;
        dependency.dstStageMask = VK_PIPELINE_STAGE_COLOR_ATTACHMENT_OUTPUT_BIT;
        dependency.dstAccessMask = VK_ACCESS_COLOR_ATTACHMENT_READ_BIT | VK_ACCESS_COLOR_ATTACHMENT_WRITE_BIT;

        std::array<VkAttachmentDescription, 2> attachments = {colorAttachment, depthAttachment};
        VkRenderPassCreateInfo renderPassInfo = {};
        renderPassInfo.sType = VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_RENDER_PASS_CREATE_INFO;
        renderPassInfo.attachmentCount = static_cast<uint32_t>(attachments.size());
        renderPassInfo.pAttachments = attachments.data();
        renderPassInfo.subpassCount = 1;
        renderPassInfo.pSubpasses = &subpass;
        renderPassInfo.dependencyCount = 1;
        renderPassInfo.pDependencies = &dependency;

        if (vkCreateRenderPass(device, &renderPassInfo, nullptr, &renderPass) != VK_SUCCESS) {
            throw std::runtime_error("failed to create render pass!");
        }
    }

    void createDescriptorSetLayout() {
        VkDescriptorSetLayoutBinding uboLayoutBinding = {};
        uboLayoutBinding.binding = 0;
        uboLayoutBinding.descriptorCount = 1;
        uboLayoutBinding.descriptorType = VK_DESCRIPTOR_TYPE_UNIFORM_BUFFER;
        uboLayoutBinding.pImmutableSamplers = nullptr;
        uboLayoutBinding.stageFlags = VK_SHADER_STAGE_VERTEX_BIT;

        VkDescriptorSetLayoutBinding samplerLayoutBinding = {};
        samplerLayoutBinding.binding = 1;
        samplerLayoutBinding.descriptorCount = 1;
        samplerLayoutBinding.descriptorType = VK_DESCRIPTOR_TYPE_COMBINED_IMAGE_SAMPLER;
        samplerLayoutBinding.pImmutableSamplers = nullptr;
        samplerLayoutBinding.stageFlags = VK_SHADER_STAGE_FRAGMENT_BIT;

        std::array<VkDescriptorSetLayoutBinding, 2> bindings = {uboLayoutBinding, samplerLayoutBinding};
        VkDescriptorSetLayoutCreateInfo layoutInfo = {};
        layoutInfo.sType = VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_DESCRIPTOR_SET_LAYOUT_CREATE_INFO;
        layoutInfo.bindingCount = static_cast<uint32_t>(bindings.size());
        layoutInfo.pBindings = bindings.data();

        if (vkCreateDescriptorSetLayout(device, &layoutInfo, nullptr, &descriptorSetLayout) != VK_SUCCESS) {
            throw std::runtime_error("failed to create descriptor set layout!");
        }
    }

    void createGraphicsPipeline() {
        auto vertShaderCode = readFile("shaders/vert.spv");
        auto fragShaderCode = readFile("shaders/frag.spv");

        VkShaderModule vertShaderModule = createShaderModule(vertShaderCode);
        VkShaderModule fragShaderModule = createShaderModule(fragShaderCode);

        VkPipelineShaderStageCreateInfo vertShaderStageInfo = {};
        vertShaderStageInfo.sType = VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_PIPELINE_SHADER_STAGE_CREATE_INFO;
        vertShaderStageInfo.stage = VK_SHADER_STAGE_VERTEX_BIT;
        vertShaderStageInfo.module = vertShaderModule;
        vertShaderStageInfo.pName = "main";

        VkPipelineShaderStageCreateInfo fragShaderStageInfo = {};
        fragShaderStageInfo.sType = VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_PIPELINE_SHADER_STAGE_CREATE_INFO;
        fragShaderStageInfo.stage = VK_SHADER_STAGE_FRAGMENT_BIT;
        fragShaderStageInfo.module = fragShaderModule;
        fragShaderStageInfo.pName = "main";

        VkPipelineShaderStageCreateInfo shaderStages[] = {vertShaderStageInfo, fragShaderStageInfo};

        VkPipelineVertexInputStateCreateInfo vertexInputInfo = {};
        vertexInputInfo.sType = VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_PIPELINE_VERTEX_INPUT_STATE_CREATE_INFO;

        auto bindingDescription = Vertex::getBindingDescription();
        auto attributeDescriptions = Vertex::getAttributeDescriptions();

        vertexInputInfo.vertexBindingDescriptionCount = 1;
        vertexInputInfo.vertexAttributeDescriptionCount = static_cast<uint32_t>(attributeDescriptions.size());
        vertexInputInfo.pVertexBindingDescriptions = &bindingDescription;
        vertexInputInfo.pVertexAttributeDescriptions = attributeDescriptions.data();

        VkPipelineInputAssemblyStateCreateInfo inputAssembly = {};
        inputAssembly.sType = VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_PIPELINE_INPUT_ASSEMBLY_STATE_CREATE_INFO;
        inputAssembly.topology = VK_PRIMITIVE_TOPOLOGY_TRIANGLE_LIST;
        inputAssembly.primitiveRestartEnable = VK_FALSE;

        VkViewport viewport = {};
        viewport.x = 0.0f;
        viewport.y = 0.0f;
        viewport.width = (float) swapChainExtent.width;
        viewport.height = (float) swapChainExtent.height;
        viewport.minDepth = 0.0f;
        viewport.maxDepth = 1.0f;

        VkRect2D scissor = {};
        scissor.offset = {0, 0};
        scissor.extent = swapChainExtent;

        VkPipelineViewportStateCreateInfo viewportState = {};
        viewportState.sType = VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_PIPELINE_VIEWPORT_STATE_CREATE_INFO;
        viewportState.viewportCount = 1;
        viewportState.pViewports = &viewport;
        viewportState.scissorCount = 1;
        viewportState.pScissors = &scissor;

        VkPipelineRasterizationStateCreateInfo rasterizer = {};
        rasterizer.sType = VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_PIPELINE_RASTERIZATION_STATE_CREATE_INFO;
        rasterizer.depthClampEnable = VK_FALSE;
        rasterizer.rasterizerDiscardEnable = VK_FALSE;
        rasterizer.polygonMode = VK_POLYGON_MODE_FILL;
        rasterizer.lineWidth = 1.0f;
        rasterizer.cullMode = VK_CULL_MODE_BACK_BIT;
        rasterizer.frontFace = VK_FRONT_FACE_COUNTER_CLOCKWISE;
        rasterizer.depthBiasEnable = VK_FALSE;

        VkPipelineMultisampleStateCreateInfo multisampling = {};
        multisampling.sType = VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_PIPELINE_MULTISAMPLE_STATE_CREATE_INFO;
        multisampling.sampleShadingEnable = VK_FALSE;
        multisampling.rasterizationSamples = VK_SAMPLE_COUNT_1_BIT;

        VkPipelineDepthStencilStateCreateInfo depthStencil = {};
        depthStencil.sType = VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_PIPELINE_DEPTH_STENCIL_STATE_CREATE_INFO;
        depthStencil.depthTestEnable = VK_TRUE;
        depthStencil.depthWriteEnable = VK_TRUE;
        depthStencil.depthCompareOp = VK_COMPARE_OP_LESS;
        depthStencil.depthBoundsTestEnable = VK_FALSE;
        depthStencil.stencilTestEnable = VK_FALSE;

        VkPipelineColorBlendAttachmentState colorBlendAttachment = {};
        colorBlendAttachment.colorWriteMask = VK_COLOR_COMPONENT_R_BIT | VK_COLOR_COMPONENT_G_BIT | VK_COLOR_COMPONENT_B_BIT | VK_COLOR_COMPONENT_A_BIT;
        colorBlendAttachment.blendEnable = VK_FALSE;

        VkPipelineColorBlendStateCreateInfo colorBlending = {};
        colorBlending.sType = VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_PIPELINE_COLOR_BLEND_STATE_CREATE_INFO;
        colorBlending.logicOpEnable = VK_FALSE;
        colorBlending.logicOp = VK_LOGIC_OP_COPY;
        colorBlending.attachmentCount = 1;
        colorBlending.pAttachments = &colorBlendAttachment;
        colorBlending.blendConstants[0] = 0.0f;
        colorBlending.blendConstants[1] = 0.0f;
        colorBlending.blendConstants[2] = 0.0f;
        colorBlending.blendConstants[3] = 0.0f;

        VkPipelineLayoutCreateInfo pipelineLayoutInfo = {};
        pipelineLayoutInfo.sType = VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_PIPELINE_LAYOUT_CREATE_INFO;
        pipelineLayoutInfo.setLayoutCount = 1;
        pipelineLayoutInfo.pSetLayouts = &descriptorSetLayout;

        if (vkCreatePipelineLayout(device, &pipelineLayoutInfo, nullptr, &pipelineLayout) != VK_SUCCESS) {
            throw std::runtime_error("failed to create pipeline layout!");
        }

        VkGraphicsPipelineCreateInfo pipelineInfo = {};
        pipelineInfo.sType = VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_GRAPHICS_PIPELINE_CREATE_INFO;
        pipelineInfo.stageCount = 2;
        pipelineInfo.pStages = shaderStages;
        pipelineInfo.pVertexInputState = &vertexInputInfo;
        pipelineInfo.pInputAssemblyState = &inputAssembly;
        pipelineInfo.pViewportState = &viewportState;
        pipelineInfo.pRasterizationState = &rasterizer;
        pipelineInfo.pMultisampleState = &multisampling;
        pipelineInfo.pDepthStencilState = &depthStencil;
        pipelineInfo.pColorBlendState = &colorBlending;
        pipelineInfo.layout = pipelineLayout;
        pipelineInfo.renderPass = renderPass;
        pipelineInfo.subpass = 0;
        pipelineInfo.basePipelineHandle = VK_NULL_HANDLE;

        if (vkCreateGraphicsPipelines(device, VK_NULL_HANDLE, 1, &pipelineInfo, nullptr, &graphicsPipeline) != VK_SUCCESS) {
            throw std::runtime_error("failed to create graphics pipeline!");
        }

        vkDestroyShaderModule(device, fragShaderModule, nullptr);
        vkDestroyShaderModule(device, vertShaderModule, nullptr);
    }

    void createFramebuffers() {
        swapChainFramebuffers.resize(swapChainImageViews.size());

        for (size_t i = 0; i < swapChainImageViews.size(); i++) {
            std::array<VkImageView, 2> attachments = {
                swapChainImageViews[i],
                depthImageView
            };

            VkFramebufferCreateInfo framebufferInfo = {};
            framebufferInfo.sType = VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_FRAMEBUFFER_CREATE_INFO;
            framebufferInfo.renderPass = renderPass;
            framebufferInfo.attachmentCount = static_cast<uint32_t>(attachments.size());
            framebufferInfo.pAttachments = attachments.data();
            framebufferInfo.width = swapChainExtent.width;
            framebufferInfo.height = swapChainExtent.height;
            framebufferInfo.layers = 1;

            if (vkCreateFramebuffer(device, &framebufferInfo, nullptr, &swapChainFramebuffers[i]) != VK_SUCCESS) {
                throw std::runtime_error("failed to create framebuffer!");
            }
        }
    }

    void createCommandPool() {
        QueueFamilyIndices queueFamilyIndices = findQueueFamilies(physicalDevice);

        VkCommandPoolCreateInfo poolInfo = {};
        poolInfo.sType = VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_COMMAND_POOL_CREATE_INFO;
        poolInfo.queueFamilyIndex = queueFamilyIndices.graphicsFamily.value();

        if (vkCreateCommandPool(device, &poolInfo, nullptr, &commandPool) != VK_SUCCESS) {
            throw std::runtime_error("failed to create graphics command pool!");
        }
    }

    void createDepthResources() {
        VkFormat depthFormat = findDepthFormat();

        createImage(swapChainExtent.width, swapChainExtent.height, 1, depthFormat, VK_IMAGE_TILING_OPTIMAL, VK_IMAGE_USAGE_DEPTH_STENCIL_ATTACHMENT_BIT, VK_MEMORY_PROPERTY_DEVICE_LOCAL_BIT, depthImage, depthImageMemory);
        depthImageView = createImageView(depthImage, depthFormat, VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_DEPTH_BIT, 1);

        transitionImageLayout(depthImage, depthFormat, VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_UNDEFINED, VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_DEPTH_STENCIL_ATTACHMENT_OPTIMAL, 1);
    }

    VkFormat findSupportedFormat(const std::vector<VkFormat>& candidates, VkImageTiling tiling, VkFormatFeatureFlags features) {
        for (VkFormat format : candidates) {
            VkFormatProperties props;
            vkGetPhysicalDeviceFormatProperties(physicalDevice, format, &props);

            if (tiling == VK_IMAGE_TILING_LINEAR && (props.linearTilingFeatures & features) == features) {
                return format;
            } else if (tiling == VK_IMAGE_TILING_OPTIMAL && (props.optimalTilingFeatures & features) == features) {
                return format;
            }
        }

        throw std::runtime_error("failed to find supported format!");
    }

    VkFormat findDepthFormat() {
        return findSupportedFormat(
            {VK_FORMAT_D32_SFLOAT, VK_FORMAT_D32_SFLOAT_S8_UINT, VK_FORMAT_D24_UNORM_S8_UINT},
            VK_IMAGE_TILING_OPTIMAL,
            VK_FORMAT_FEATURE_DEPTH_STENCIL_ATTACHMENT_BIT
        );
    }

    bool hasStencilComponent(VkFormat format) {
        return format == VK_FORMAT_D32_SFLOAT_S8_UINT || format == VK_FORMAT_D24_UNORM_S8_UINT;
    }

    void createTextureImage() {
        int texWidth, texHeight, texChannels;
        stbi_uc* pixels = stbi_load(TEXTURE_PATH.c_str(), &texWidth, &texHeight, &texChannels, STBI_rgb_alpha);
        VkDeviceSize imageSize = texWidth * texHeight * 4;
        mipLevels = static_cast<uint32_t>(std::floor(std::log2(std::max(texWidth, texHeight)))) + 1;

        if (!pixels) {
            throw std::runtime_error("failed to load texture image!");
        }

        VkBuffer stagingBuffer;
        VkDeviceMemory stagingBufferMemory;
        createBuffer(imageSize, VK_BUFFER_USAGE_TRANSFER_SRC_BIT, VK_MEMORY_PROPERTY_HOST_VISIBLE_BIT | VK_MEMORY_PROPERTY_HOST_COHERENT_BIT, stagingBuffer, stagingBufferMemory);

        void* data;
        vkMapMemory(device, stagingBufferMemory, 0, imageSize, 0, &data);
            memcpy(data, pixels, static_cast<size_t>(imageSize));
        vkUnmapMemory(device, stagingBufferMemory);

        stbi_image_free(pixels);

        createImage(texWidth, texHeight, mipLevels, VK_FORMAT_R8G8B8A8_UNORM, VK_IMAGE_TILING_OPTIMAL, VK_IMAGE_USAGE_TRANSFER_SRC_BIT | VK_IMAGE_USAGE_TRANSFER_DST_BIT | VK_IMAGE_USAGE_SAMPLED_BIT, VK_MEMORY_PROPERTY_DEVICE_LOCAL_BIT, textureImage, textureImageMemory);

        transitionImageLayout(textureImage, VK_FORMAT_R8G8B8A8_UNORM, VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_UNDEFINED, VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_TRANSFER_DST_OPTIMAL, mipLevels);
        copyBufferToImage(stagingBuffer, textureImage, static_cast<uint32_t>(texWidth), static_cast<uint32_t>(texHeight));
        //transitioned to VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_SHADER_READ_ONLY_OPTIMAL while generating mipmaps

        vkDestroyBuffer(device, stagingBuffer, nullptr);
        vkFreeMemory(device, stagingBufferMemory, nullptr);

        generateMipmaps(textureImage, VK_FORMAT_R8G8B8A8_UNORM, texWidth, texHeight, mipLevels);
    }

    void generateMipmaps(VkImage image, VkFormat imageFormat, int32_t texWidth, int32_t texHeight, uint32_t mipLevels) {
        // Check if image format supports linear blitting
        VkFormatProperties formatProperties;
        vkGetPhysicalDeviceFormatProperties(physicalDevice, imageFormat, &formatProperties);

        if (!(formatProperties.optimalTilingFeatures & VK_FORMAT_FEATURE_SAMPLED_IMAGE_FILTER_LINEAR_BIT)) {
            throw std::runtime_error("texture image format does not support linear blitting!");
        }

        VkCommandBuffer commandBuffer = beginSingleTimeCommands();

        VkImageMemoryBarrier barrier = {};
        barrier.sType = VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_IMAGE_MEMORY_BARRIER;
        barrier.image = image;
        barrier.srcQueueFamilyIndex = VK_QUEUE_FAMILY_IGNORED;
        barrier.dstQueueFamilyIndex = VK_QUEUE_FAMILY_IGNORED;
        barrier.subresourceRange.aspectMask = VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_COLOR_BIT;
        barrier.subresourceRange.baseArrayLayer = 0;
        barrier.subresourceRange.layerCount = 1;
        barrier.subresourceRange.levelCount = 1;

        int32_t mipWidth = texWidth;
        int32_t mipHeight = texHeight;

        for (uint32_t i = 1; i < mipLevels; i++) {
            barrier.subresourceRange.baseMipLevel = i - 1;
            barrier.oldLayout = VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_TRANSFER_DST_OPTIMAL;
            barrier.newLayout = VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_TRANSFER_SRC_OPTIMAL;
            barrier.srcAccessMask = VK_ACCESS_TRANSFER_WRITE_BIT;
            barrier.dstAccessMask = VK_ACCESS_TRANSFER_READ_BIT;

            vkCmdPipelineBarrier(commandBuffer,
                VK_PIPELINE_STAGE_TRANSFER_BIT, VK_PIPELINE_STAGE_TRANSFER_BIT, 0,
                0, nullptr,
                0, nullptr,
                1, &barrier);

            VkImageBlit blit = {};
            blit.srcOffsets[0] = {0, 0, 0};
            blit.srcOffsets[1] = {mipWidth, mipHeight, 1};
            blit.srcSubresource.aspectMask = VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_COLOR_BIT;
            blit.srcSubresource.mipLevel = i - 1;
            blit.srcSubresource.baseArrayLayer = 0;
            blit.srcSubresource.layerCount = 1;
            blit.dstOffsets[0] = {0, 0, 0};
            blit.dstOffsets[1] = { mipWidth > 1 ? mipWidth / 2 : 1, mipHeight > 1 ? mipHeight / 2 : 1, 1 };
            blit.dstSubresource.aspectMask = VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_COLOR_BIT;
            blit.dstSubresource.mipLevel = i;
            blit.dstSubresource.baseArrayLayer = 0;
            blit.dstSubresource.layerCount = 1;

            vkCmdBlitImage(commandBuffer,
                image, VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_TRANSFER_SRC_OPTIMAL,
                image, VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_TRANSFER_DST_OPTIMAL,
                1, &blit,
                VK_FILTER_LINEAR);

            barrier.oldLayout = VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_TRANSFER_SRC_OPTIMAL;
            barrier.newLayout = VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_SHADER_READ_ONLY_OPTIMAL;
            barrier.srcAccessMask = VK_ACCESS_TRANSFER_READ_BIT;
            barrier.dstAccessMask = VK_ACCESS_SHADER_READ_BIT;

            vkCmdPipelineBarrier(commandBuffer,
                VK_PIPELINE_STAGE_TRANSFER_BIT, VK_PIPELINE_STAGE_FRAGMENT_SHADER_BIT, 0,
                0, nullptr,
                0, nullptr,
                1, &barrier);

            if (mipWidth > 1) mipWidth /= 2;
            if (mipHeight > 1) mipHeight /= 2;
        }

        barrier.subresourceRange.baseMipLevel = mipLevels - 1;
        barrier.oldLayout = VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_TRANSFER_DST_OPTIMAL;
        barrier.newLayout = VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_SHADER_READ_ONLY_OPTIMAL;
        barrier.srcAccessMask = VK_ACCESS_TRANSFER_WRITE_BIT;
        barrier.dstAccessMask = VK_ACCESS_SHADER_READ_BIT;

        vkCmdPipelineBarrier(commandBuffer,
            VK_PIPELINE_STAGE_TRANSFER_BIT, VK_PIPELINE_STAGE_FRAGMENT_SHADER_BIT, 0,
            0, nullptr,
            0, nullptr,
            1, &barrier);

        endSingleTimeCommands(commandBuffer);
    }

    void createTextureImageView() {
        textureImageView = createImageView(textureImage, VK_FORMAT_R8G8B8A8_UNORM, VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_COLOR_BIT, mipLevels);
    }

    void createTextureSampler() {
        VkSamplerCreateInfo samplerInfo = {};
        samplerInfo.sType = VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_SAMPLER_CREATE_INFO;
        samplerInfo.magFilter = VK_FILTER_LINEAR;
        samplerInfo.minFilter = VK_FILTER_LINEAR;
        samplerInfo.addressModeU = VK_SAMPLER_ADDRESS_MODE_REPEAT;
        samplerInfo.addressModeV = VK_SAMPLER_ADDRESS_MODE_REPEAT;
        samplerInfo.addressModeW = VK_SAMPLER_ADDRESS_MODE_REPEAT;
        samplerInfo.anisotropyEnable = VK_TRUE;
        samplerInfo.maxAnisotropy = 16;
        samplerInfo.borderColor = VK_BORDER_COLOR_INT_OPAQUE_BLACK;
        samplerInfo.unnormalizedCoordinates = VK_FALSE;
        samplerInfo.compareEnable = VK_FALSE;
        samplerInfo.compareOp = VK_COMPARE_OP_ALWAYS;
        samplerInfo.mipmapMode = VK_SAMPLER_MIPMAP_MODE_LINEAR;
        samplerInfo.minLod = 0;
        samplerInfo.maxLod = static_cast<float>(mipLevels);
        samplerInfo.mipLodBias = 0;

        if (vkCreateSampler(device, &samplerInfo, nullptr, &textureSampler) != VK_SUCCESS) {
            throw std::runtime_error("failed to create texture sampler!");
        }
    }

    VkImageView createImageView(VkImage image, VkFormat format, VkImageAspectFlags aspectFlags, uint32_t mipLevels) {
        VkImageViewCreateInfo viewInfo = {};
        viewInfo.sType = VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_IMAGE_VIEW_CREATE_INFO;
        viewInfo.image = image;
        viewInfo.viewType = VK_IMAGE_VIEW_TYPE_2D;
        viewInfo.format = format;
        viewInfo.subresourceRange.aspectMask = aspectFlags;
        viewInfo.subresourceRange.baseMipLevel = 0;
        viewInfo.subresourceRange.levelCount = mipLevels;
        viewInfo.subresourceRange.baseArrayLayer = 0;
        viewInfo.subresourceRange.layerCount = 1;

        VkImageView imageView;
        if (vkCreateImageView(device, &viewInfo, nullptr, &imageView) != VK_SUCCESS) {
            throw std::runtime_error("failed to create texture image view!");
        }

        return imageView;
    }

    void createImage(uint32_t width, uint32_t height, uint32_t mipLevels, VkFormat format, VkImageTiling tiling, VkImageUsageFlags usage, VkMemoryPropertyFlags properties, VkImage& image, VkDeviceMemory& imageMemory) {
        VkImageCreateInfo imageInfo = {};
        imageInfo.sType = VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_IMAGE_CREATE_INFO;
        imageInfo.imageType = VK_IMAGE_TYPE_2D;
        imageInfo.extent.width = width;
        imageInfo.extent.height = height;
        imageInfo.extent.depth = 1;
        imageInfo.mipLevels = mipLevels;
        imageInfo.arrayLayers = 1;
        imageInfo.format = format;
        imageInfo.tiling = tiling;
        imageInfo.initialLayout = VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_UNDEFINED;
        imageInfo.usage = usage;
        imageInfo.samples = VK_SAMPLE_COUNT_1_BIT;
        imageInfo.sharingMode = VK_SHARING_MODE_EXCLUSIVE;

        if (vkCreateImage(device, &imageInfo, nullptr, &image) != VK_SUCCESS) {
            throw std::runtime_error("failed to create image!");
        }

        VkMemoryRequirements memRequirements;
        vkGetImageMemoryRequirements(device, image, &memRequirements);

        VkMemoryAllocateInfo allocInfo = {};
        allocInfo.sType = VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_MEMORY_ALLOCATE_INFO;
        allocInfo.allocationSize = memRequirements.size;
        allocInfo.memoryTypeIndex = findMemoryType(memRequirements.memoryTypeBits, properties);

        if (vkAllocateMemory(device, &allocInfo, nullptr, &imageMemory) != VK_SUCCESS) {
            throw std::runtime_error("failed to allocate image memory!");
        }

        vkBindImageMemory(device, image, imageMemory, 0);
    }

    void transitionImageLayout(VkImage image, VkFormat format, VkImageLayout oldLayout, VkImageLayout newLayout, uint32_t mipLevels) {
        VkCommandBuffer commandBuffer = beginSingleTimeCommands();

        VkImageMemoryBarrier barrier = {};
        barrier.sType = VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_IMAGE_MEMORY_BARRIER;
        barrier.oldLayout = oldLayout;
        barrier.newLayout = newLayout;
        barrier.srcQueueFamilyIndex = VK_QUEUE_FAMILY_IGNORED;
        barrier.dstQueueFamilyIndex = VK_QUEUE_FAMILY_IGNORED;
        barrier.image = image;

        if (newLayout == VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_DEPTH_STENCIL_ATTACHMENT_OPTIMAL) {
            barrier.subresourceRange.aspectMask = VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_DEPTH_BIT;

            if (hasStencilComponent(format)) {
                barrier.subresourceRange.aspectMask |= VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_STENCIL_BIT;
            }
        } else {
            barrier.subresourceRange.aspectMask = VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_COLOR_BIT;
        }

        barrier.subresourceRange.baseMipLevel = 0;
        barrier.subresourceRange.levelCount = mipLevels;
        barrier.subresourceRange.baseArrayLayer = 0;
        barrier.subresourceRange.layerCount = 1;

        VkPipelineStageFlags sourceStage;
        VkPipelineStageFlags destinationStage;

        if (oldLayout == VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_UNDEFINED && newLayout == VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_TRANSFER_DST_OPTIMAL) {
            barrier.srcAccessMask = 0;
            barrier.dstAccessMask = VK_ACCESS_TRANSFER_WRITE_BIT;

            sourceStage = VK_PIPELINE_STAGE_TOP_OF_PIPE_BIT;
            destinationStage = VK_PIPELINE_STAGE_TRANSFER_BIT;
        } else if (oldLayout == VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_TRANSFER_DST_OPTIMAL && newLayout == VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_SHADER_READ_ONLY_OPTIMAL) {
            barrier.srcAccessMask = VK_ACCESS_TRANSFER_WRITE_BIT;
            barrier.dstAccessMask = VK_ACCESS_SHADER_READ_BIT;

            sourceStage = VK_PIPELINE_STAGE_TRANSFER_BIT;
            destinationStage = VK_PIPELINE_STAGE_FRAGMENT_SHADER_BIT;
        } else if (oldLayout == VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_UNDEFINED && newLayout == VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_DEPTH_STENCIL_ATTACHMENT_OPTIMAL) {
            barrier.srcAccessMask = 0;
            barrier.dstAccessMask = VK_ACCESS_DEPTH_STENCIL_ATTACHMENT_READ_BIT | VK_ACCESS_DEPTH_STENCIL_ATTACHMENT_WRITE_BIT;

            sourceStage = VK_PIPELINE_STAGE_TOP_OF_PIPE_BIT;
            destinationStage = VK_PIPELINE_STAGE_EARLY_FRAGMENT_TESTS_BIT;
        } else {
            throw std::invalid_argument("unsupported layout transition!");
        }

        vkCmdPipelineBarrier(
            commandBuffer,
            sourceStage, destinationStage,
            0,
            0, nullptr,
            0, nullptr,
            1, &barrier
        );

        endSingleTimeCommands(commandBuffer);
    }

    void copyBufferToImage(VkBuffer buffer, VkImage image, uint32_t width, uint32_t height) {
        VkCommandBuffer commandBuffer = beginSingleTimeCommands();

        VkBufferImageCopy region = {};
        region.bufferOffset = 0;
        region.bufferRowLength = 0;
        region.bufferImageHeight = 0;
        region.imageSubresource.aspectMask = VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_COLOR_BIT;
        region.imageSubresource.mipLevel = 0;
        region.imageSubresource.baseArrayLayer = 0;
        region.imageSubresource.layerCount = 1;
        region.imageOffset = {0, 0, 0};
        region.imageExtent = {
            width,
            height,
            1
        };

        vkCmdCopyBufferToImage(commandBuffer, buffer, image, VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_TRANSFER_DST_OPTIMAL, 1, &region);

        endSingleTimeCommands(commandBuffer);
    }

    void loadModel() {
        tinyobj::attrib_t attrib;
        std::vector<tinyobj::shape_t> shapes;
        std::vector<tinyobj::material_t> materials;
        std::string warn, err;

        if (!tinyobj::LoadObj(&attrib, &shapes, &materials, &warn, &err, MODEL_PATH.c_str())) {
            throw std::runtime_error(warn + err);
        }

        std::unordered_map<Vertex, uint32_t> uniqueVertices = {};

        for (const auto& shape : shapes) {
            for (const auto& index : shape.mesh.indices) {
                Vertex vertex = {};

                vertex.pos = {
                    attrib.vertices[3 * index.vertex_index + 0],
                    attrib.vertices[3 * index.vertex_index + 1],
                    attrib.vertices[3 * index.vertex_index + 2]
                };

                vertex.texCoord = {
                    attrib.texcoords[2 * index.texcoord_index + 0],
                    1.0f - attrib.texcoords[2 * index.texcoord_index + 1]
                };

                vertex.color = {1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f};

                if (uniqueVertices.count(vertex) == 0) {
                    uniqueVertices[vertex] = static_cast<uint32_t>(vertices.size());
                    vertices.push_back(vertex);
                }

                indices.push_back(uniqueVertices[vertex]);
            }
        }
    }

    void createVertexBuffer() {
        VkDeviceSize bufferSize = sizeof(vertices[0]) * vertices.size();

        VkBuffer stagingBuffer;
        VkDeviceMemory stagingBufferMemory;
        createBuffer(bufferSize, VK_BUFFER_USAGE_TRANSFER_SRC_BIT, VK_MEMORY_PROPERTY_HOST_VISIBLE_BIT | VK_MEMORY_PROPERTY_HOST_COHERENT_BIT, stagingBuffer, stagingBufferMemory);

        void* data;
        vkMapMemory(device, stagingBufferMemory, 0, bufferSize, 0, &data);
            memcpy(data, vertices.data(), (size_t) bufferSize);
        vkUnmapMemory(device, stagingBufferMemory);

        createBuffer(bufferSize, VK_BUFFER_USAGE_TRANSFER_DST_BIT | VK_BUFFER_USAGE_VERTEX_BUFFER_BIT, VK_MEMORY_PROPERTY_DEVICE_LOCAL_BIT, vertexBuffer, vertexBufferMemory);

        copyBuffer(stagingBuffer, vertexBuffer, bufferSize);

        vkDestroyBuffer(device, stagingBuffer, nullptr);
        vkFreeMemory(device, stagingBufferMemory, nullptr);
    }

    void createIndexBuffer() {
        VkDeviceSize bufferSize = sizeof(indices[0]) * indices.size();

        VkBuffer stagingBuffer;
        VkDeviceMemory stagingBufferMemory;
        createBuffer(bufferSize, VK_BUFFER_USAGE_TRANSFER_SRC_BIT, VK_MEMORY_PROPERTY_HOST_VISIBLE_BIT | VK_MEMORY_PROPERTY_HOST_COHERENT_BIT, stagingBuffer, stagingBufferMemory);

        void* data;
        vkMapMemory(device, stagingBufferMemory, 0, bufferSize, 0, &data);
            memcpy(data, indices.data(), (size_t) bufferSize);
        vkUnmapMemory(device, stagingBufferMemory);

        createBuffer(bufferSize, VK_BUFFER_USAGE_TRANSFER_DST_BIT | VK_BUFFER_USAGE_INDEX_BUFFER_BIT, VK_MEMORY_PROPERTY_DEVICE_LOCAL_BIT, indexBuffer, indexBufferMemory);

        copyBuffer(stagingBuffer, indexBuffer, bufferSize);

        vkDestroyBuffer(device, stagingBuffer, nullptr);
        vkFreeMemory(device, stagingBufferMemory, nullptr);
    }

    void createUniformBuffers() {
        VkDeviceSize bufferSize = sizeof(UniformBufferObject);

        uniformBuffers.resize(swapChainImages.size());
        uniformBuffersMemory.resize(swapChainImages.size());

        for (size_t i = 0; i < swapChainImages.size(); i++) {
            createBuffer(bufferSize, VK_BUFFER_USAGE_UNIFORM_BUFFER_BIT, VK_MEMORY_PROPERTY_HOST_VISIBLE_BIT | VK_MEMORY_PROPERTY_HOST_COHERENT_BIT, uniformBuffers[i], uniformBuffersMemory[i]);
        }
    }

    void createDescriptorPool() {
        std::array<VkDescriptorPoolSize, 2> poolSizes = {};
        poolSizes[0].type = VK_DESCRIPTOR_TYPE_UNIFORM_BUFFER;
        poolSizes[0].descriptorCount = static_cast<uint32_t>(swapChainImages.size());
        poolSizes[1].type = VK_DESCRIPTOR_TYPE_COMBINED_IMAGE_SAMPLER;
        poolSizes[1].descriptorCount = static_cast<uint32_t>(swapChainImages.size());

        VkDescriptorPoolCreateInfo poolInfo = {};
        poolInfo.sType = VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_DESCRIPTOR_POOL_CREATE_INFO;
        poolInfo.poolSizeCount = static_cast<uint32_t>(poolSizes.size());
        poolInfo.pPoolSizes = poolSizes.data();
        poolInfo.maxSets = static_cast<uint32_t>(swapChainImages.size());

        if (vkCreateDescriptorPool(device, &poolInfo, nullptr, &descriptorPool) != VK_SUCCESS) {
            throw std::runtime_error("failed to create descriptor pool!");
        }
    }

    void createDescriptorSets() {
        std::vector<VkDescriptorSetLayout> layouts(swapChainImages.size(), descriptorSetLayout);
        VkDescriptorSetAllocateInfo allocInfo = {};
        allocInfo.sType = VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_DESCRIPTOR_SET_ALLOCATE_INFO;
        allocInfo.descriptorPool = descriptorPool;
        allocInfo.descriptorSetCount = static_cast<uint32_t>(swapChainImages.size());
        allocInfo.pSetLayouts = layouts.data();

        descriptorSets.resize(swapChainImages.size());
        if (vkAllocateDescriptorSets(device, &allocInfo, descriptorSets.data()) != VK_SUCCESS) {
            throw std::runtime_error("failed to allocate descriptor sets!");
        }

        for (size_t i = 0; i < swapChainImages.size(); i++) {
            VkDescriptorBufferInfo bufferInfo = {};
            bufferInfo.buffer = uniformBuffers[i];
            bufferInfo.offset = 0;
            bufferInfo.range = sizeof(UniformBufferObject);

            VkDescriptorImageInfo imageInfo = {};
            imageInfo.imageLayout = VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_SHADER_READ_ONLY_OPTIMAL;
            imageInfo.imageView = textureImageView;
            imageInfo.sampler = textureSampler;

            std::array<VkWriteDescriptorSet, 2> descriptorWrites = {};

            descriptorWrites[0].sType = VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_WRITE_DESCRIPTOR_SET;
            descriptorWrites[0].dstSet = descriptorSets[i];
            descriptorWrites[0].dstBinding = 0;
            descriptorWrites[0].dstArrayElement = 0;
            descriptorWrites[0].descriptorType = VK_DESCRIPTOR_TYPE_UNIFORM_BUFFER;
            descriptorWrites[0].descriptorCount = 1;
            descriptorWrites[0].pBufferInfo = &bufferInfo;

            descriptorWrites[1].sType = VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_WRITE_DESCRIPTOR_SET;
            descriptorWrites[1].dstSet = descriptorSets[i];
            descriptorWrites[1].dstBinding = 1;
            descriptorWrites[1].dstArrayElement = 0;
            descriptorWrites[1].descriptorType = VK_DESCRIPTOR_TYPE_COMBINED_IMAGE_SAMPLER;
            descriptorWrites[1].descriptorCount = 1;
            descriptorWrites[1].pImageInfo = &imageInfo;

            vkUpdateDescriptorSets(device, static_cast<uint32_t>(descriptorWrites.size()), descriptorWrites.data(), 0, nullptr);
        }
    }

    void createBuffer(VkDeviceSize size, VkBufferUsageFlags usage, VkMemoryPropertyFlags properties, VkBuffer& buffer, VkDeviceMemory& bufferMemory) {
        VkBufferCreateInfo bufferInfo = {};
        bufferInfo.sType = VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_BUFFER_CREATE_INFO;
        bufferInfo.size = size;
        bufferInfo.usage = usage;
        bufferInfo.sharingMode = VK_SHARING_MODE_EXCLUSIVE;

        if (vkCreateBuffer(device, &bufferInfo, nullptr, &buffer) != VK_SUCCESS) {
            throw std::runtime_error("failed to create buffer!");
        }

        VkMemoryRequirements memRequirements;
        vkGetBufferMemoryRequirements(device, buffer, &memRequirements);

        VkMemoryAllocateInfo allocInfo = {};
        allocInfo.sType = VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_MEMORY_ALLOCATE_INFO;
        allocInfo.allocationSize = memRequirements.size;
        allocInfo.memoryTypeIndex = findMemoryType(memRequirements.memoryTypeBits, properties);

        if (vkAllocateMemory(device, &allocInfo, nullptr, &bufferMemory) != VK_SUCCESS) {
            throw std::runtime_error("failed to allocate buffer memory!");
        }

        vkBindBufferMemory(device, buffer, bufferMemory, 0);
    }

    VkCommandBuffer beginSingleTimeCommands() {
        VkCommandBufferAllocateInfo allocInfo = {};
        allocInfo.sType = VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_COMMAND_BUFFER_ALLOCATE_INFO;
        allocInfo.level = VK_COMMAND_BUFFER_LEVEL_PRIMARY;
        allocInfo.commandPool = commandPool;
        allocInfo.commandBufferCount = 1;

        VkCommandBuffer commandBuffer;
        vkAllocateCommandBuffers(device, &allocInfo, &commandBuffer);

        VkCommandBufferBeginInfo beginInfo = {};
        beginInfo.sType = VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_COMMAND_BUFFER_BEGIN_INFO;
        beginInfo.flags = VK_COMMAND_BUFFER_USAGE_ONE_TIME_SUBMIT_BIT;

        vkBeginCommandBuffer(commandBuffer, &beginInfo);

        return commandBuffer;
    }

    void endSingleTimeCommands(VkCommandBuffer commandBuffer) {
        vkEndCommandBuffer(commandBuffer);

        VkSubmitInfo submitInfo = {};
        submitInfo.sType = VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_SUBMIT_INFO;
        submitInfo.commandBufferCount = 1;
        submitInfo.pCommandBuffers = &commandBuffer;

        vkQueueSubmit(graphicsQueue, 1, &submitInfo, VK_NULL_HANDLE);
        vkQueueWaitIdle(graphicsQueue);

        vkFreeCommandBuffers(device, commandPool, 1, &commandBuffer);
    }

    void copyBuffer(VkBuffer srcBuffer, VkBuffer dstBuffer, VkDeviceSize size) {
        VkCommandBuffer commandBuffer = beginSingleTimeCommands();

        VkBufferCopy copyRegion = {};
        copyRegion.size = size;
        vkCmdCopyBuffer(commandBuffer, srcBuffer, dstBuffer, 1, &copyRegion);

        endSingleTimeCommands(commandBuffer);
    }

    uint32_t findMemoryType(uint32_t typeFilter, VkMemoryPropertyFlags properties) {
        VkPhysicalDeviceMemoryProperties memProperties;
        vkGetPhysicalDeviceMemoryProperties(physicalDevice, &memProperties);

        for (uint32_t i = 0; i < memProperties.memoryTypeCount; i++) {
            if ((typeFilter & (1 << i)) && (memProperties.memoryTypes[i].propertyFlags & properties) == properties) {
                return i;
            }
        }

        throw std::runtime_error("failed to find suitable memory type!");
    }

    void createCommandBuffers() {
        commandBuffers.resize(swapChainFramebuffers.size());

        VkCommandBufferAllocateInfo allocInfo = {};
        allocInfo.sType = VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_COMMAND_BUFFER_ALLOCATE_INFO;
        allocInfo.commandPool = commandPool;
        allocInfo.level = VK_COMMAND_BUFFER_LEVEL_PRIMARY;
        allocInfo.commandBufferCount = (uint32_t) commandBuffers.size();

        if (vkAllocateCommandBuffers(device, &allocInfo, commandBuffers.data()) != VK_SUCCESS) {
            throw std::runtime_error("failed to allocate command buffers!");
        }

        for (size_t i = 0; i < commandBuffers.size(); i++) {
            VkCommandBufferBeginInfo beginInfo = {};
            beginInfo.sType = VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_COMMAND_BUFFER_BEGIN_INFO;
            beginInfo.flags = VK_COMMAND_BUFFER_USAGE_SIMULTANEOUS_USE_BIT;

            if (vkBeginCommandBuffer(commandBuffers[i], &beginInfo) != VK_SUCCESS) {
                throw std::runtime_error("failed to begin recording command buffer!");
            }

            VkRenderPassBeginInfo renderPassInfo = {};
            renderPassInfo.sType = VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_RENDER_PASS_BEGIN_INFO;
            renderPassInfo.renderPass = renderPass;
            renderPassInfo.framebuffer = swapChainFramebuffers[i];
            renderPassInfo.renderArea.offset = {0, 0};
            renderPassInfo.renderArea.extent = swapChainExtent;

            std::array<VkClearValue, 2> clearValues = {};
            clearValues[0].color = {0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f};
            clearValues[1].depthStencil = {1.0f, 0};

            renderPassInfo.clearValueCount = static_cast<uint32_t>(clearValues.size());
            renderPassInfo.pClearValues = clearValues.data();

            vkCmdBeginRenderPass(commandBuffers[i], &renderPassInfo, VK_SUBPASS_CONTENTS_INLINE);

                vkCmdBindPipeline(commandBuffers[i], VK_PIPELINE_BIND_POINT_GRAPHICS, graphicsPipeline);

                VkBuffer vertexBuffers[] = {vertexBuffer};
                VkDeviceSize offsets[] = {0};
                vkCmdBindVertexBuffers(commandBuffers[i], 0, 1, vertexBuffers, offsets);

                vkCmdBindIndexBuffer(commandBuffers[i], indexBuffer, 0, VK_INDEX_TYPE_UINT32);

                vkCmdBindDescriptorSets(commandBuffers[i], VK_PIPELINE_BIND_POINT_GRAPHICS, pipelineLayout, 0, 1, &descriptorSets[i], 0, nullptr);

                vkCmdDrawIndexed(commandBuffers[i], static_cast<uint32_t>(indices.size()), 1, 0, 0, 0);

            vkCmdEndRenderPass(commandBuffers[i]);

            if (vkEndCommandBuffer(commandBuffers[i]) != VK_SUCCESS) {
                throw std::runtime_error("failed to record command buffer!");
            }
        }
    }

    void createSyncObjects() {
        imageAvailableSemaphores.resize(MAX_FRAMES_IN_FLIGHT);
        renderFinishedSemaphores.resize(MAX_FRAMES_IN_FLIGHT);
        inFlightFences.resize(MAX_FRAMES_IN_FLIGHT);

        VkSemaphoreCreateInfo semaphoreInfo = {};
        semaphoreInfo.sType = VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_SEMAPHORE_CREATE_INFO;

        VkFenceCreateInfo fenceInfo = {};
        fenceInfo.sType = VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_FENCE_CREATE_INFO;
        fenceInfo.flags = VK_FENCE_CREATE_SIGNALED_BIT;

        for (size_t i = 0; i < MAX_FRAMES_IN_FLIGHT; i++) {
            if (vkCreateSemaphore(device, &semaphoreInfo, nullptr, &imageAvailableSemaphores[i]) != VK_SUCCESS ||
                vkCreateSemaphore(device, &semaphoreInfo, nullptr, &renderFinishedSemaphores[i]) != VK_SUCCESS ||
                vkCreateFence(device, &fenceInfo, nullptr, &inFlightFences[i]) != VK_SUCCESS) {
                throw std::runtime_error("failed to create synchronization objects for a frame!");
            }
        }
    }

    void updateUniformBuffer(uint32_t currentImage) {
        static auto startTime = std::chrono::high_resolution_clock::now();

        auto currentTime = std::chrono::high_resolution_clock::now();
        float time = std::chrono::duration<float, std::chrono::seconds::period>(currentTime - startTime).count();

        UniformBufferObject ubo = {};
        ubo.model = glm::rotate(glm::mat4(1.0f), time * glm::radians(90.0f), glm::vec3(0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f));
        ubo.view = glm::lookAt(glm::vec3(2.0f, 2.0f, 2.0f), glm::vec3(0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f), glm::vec3(0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f));
        ubo.proj = glm::perspective(glm::radians(45.0f), swapChainExtent.width / (float) swapChainExtent.height, 0.1f, 10.0f);
        ubo.proj[1][1] *= -1;

        void* data;
        vkMapMemory(device, uniformBuffersMemory[currentImage], 0, sizeof(ubo), 0, &data);
            memcpy(data, &ubo, sizeof(ubo));
        vkUnmapMemory(device, uniformBuffersMemory[currentImage]);
    }

    void drawFrame() {
        vkWaitForFences(device, 1, &inFlightFences[currentFrame], VK_TRUE, std::numeric_limits<uint64_t>::max());

        uint32_t imageIndex;
        VkResult result = vkAcquireNextImageKHR(device, swapChain, std::numeric_limits<uint64_t>::max(), imageAvailableSemaphores[currentFrame], VK_NULL_HANDLE, &imageIndex);

        if (result == VK_ERROR_OUT_OF_DATE_KHR) {
            recreateSwapChain();
            return;
        } else if (result != VK_SUCCESS && result != VK_SUBOPTIMAL_KHR) {
            throw std::runtime_error("failed to acquire swap chain image!");
        }

        updateUniformBuffer(imageIndex);

        VkSubmitInfo submitInfo = {};
        submitInfo.sType = VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_SUBMIT_INFO;

        VkSemaphore waitSemaphores[] = {imageAvailableSemaphores[currentFrame]};
        VkPipelineStageFlags waitStages[] = {VK_PIPELINE_STAGE_COLOR_ATTACHMENT_OUTPUT_BIT};
        submitInfo.waitSemaphoreCount = 1;
        submitInfo.pWaitSemaphores = waitSemaphores;
        submitInfo.pWaitDstStageMask = waitStages;

        submitInfo.commandBufferCount = 1;
        submitInfo.pCommandBuffers = &commandBuffers[imageIndex];

        VkSemaphore signalSemaphores[] = {renderFinishedSemaphores[currentFrame]};
        submitInfo.signalSemaphoreCount = 1;
        submitInfo.pSignalSemaphores = signalSemaphores;

        vkResetFences(device, 1, &inFlightFences[currentFrame]);

        if (vkQueueSubmit(graphicsQueue, 1, &submitInfo, inFlightFences[currentFrame]) != VK_SUCCESS) {
            throw std::runtime_error("failed to submit draw command buffer!");
        }

        VkPresentInfoKHR presentInfo = {};
        presentInfo.sType = VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_PRESENT_INFO_KHR;

        presentInfo.waitSemaphoreCount = 1;
        presentInfo.pWaitSemaphores = signalSemaphores;

        VkSwapchainKHR swapChains[] = {swapChain};
        presentInfo.swapchainCount = 1;
        presentInfo.pSwapchains = swapChains;

        presentInfo.pImageIndices = &imageIndex;

        result = vkQueuePresentKHR(presentQueue, &presentInfo);

        if (result == VK_ERROR_OUT_OF_DATE_KHR || result == VK_SUBOPTIMAL_KHR || framebufferResized) {
            framebufferResized = false;
            recreateSwapChain();
        } else if (result != VK_SUCCESS) {
            throw std::runtime_error("failed to present swap chain image!");
        }

        currentFrame = (currentFrame + 1) % MAX_FRAMES_IN_FLIGHT;
    }

    VkShaderModule createShaderModule(const std::vector<char>& code) {
        VkShaderModuleCreateInfo createInfo = {};
        createInfo.sType = VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_SHADER_MODULE_CREATE_INFO;
        createInfo.codeSize = code.size();
        createInfo.pCode = reinterpret_cast<const uint32_t*>(code.data());

        VkShaderModule shaderModule;
        if (vkCreateShaderModule(device, &createInfo, nullptr, &shaderModule) != VK_SUCCESS) {
            throw std::runtime_error("failed to create shader module!");
        }

        return shaderModule;
    }

    VkSurfaceFormatKHR chooseSwapSurfaceFormat(const std::vector<VkSurfaceFormatKHR>& availableFormats) {
        for (const auto& availableFormat : availableFormats) {
            if (availableFormat.format == VK_FORMAT_B8G8R8A8_UNORM && availableFormat.colorSpace == VK_COLOR_SPACE_SRGB_NONLINEAR_KHR) {
                return availableFormat;
            }
        }

        return availableFormats[0];
    }

    VkPresentModeKHR chooseSwapPresentMode(const std::vector<VkPresentModeKHR>& availablePresentModes) {
        VkPresentModeKHR bestMode = VK_PRESENT_MODE_FIFO_KHR;

        for (const auto& availablePresentMode : availablePresentModes) {
            if (availablePresentMode == VK_PRESENT_MODE_MAILBOX_KHR) {
                return availablePresentMode;
            } else if (availablePresentMode == VK_PRESENT_MODE_IMMEDIATE_KHR) {
                bestMode = availablePresentMode;
            }
        }

        return bestMode;
    }

    VkExtent2D chooseSwapExtent(const VkSurfaceCapabilitiesKHR& capabilities) {
        if (capabilities.currentExtent.width != std::numeric_limits<uint32_t>::max()) {
            return capabilities.currentExtent;
        } else {
            int width, height;
            glfwGetFramebufferSize(window, &width, &height);

            VkExtent2D actualExtent = {
                static_cast<uint32_t>(width),
                static_cast<uint32_t>(height)
            };

            actualExtent.width = std::max(capabilities.minImageExtent.width, std::min(capabilities.maxImageExtent.width, actualExtent.width));
            actualExtent.height = std::max(capabilities.minImageExtent.height, std::min(capabilities.maxImageExtent.height, actualExtent.height));

            return actualExtent;
        }
    }

    SwapChainSupportDetails querySwapChainSupport(VkPhysicalDevice device) {
        SwapChainSupportDetails details;

        vkGetPhysicalDeviceSurfaceCapabilitiesKHR(device, surface, &details.capabilities);

        uint32_t formatCount;
        vkGetPhysicalDeviceSurfaceFormatsKHR(device, surface, &formatCount, nullptr);

        if (formatCount != 0) {
            details.formats.resize(formatCount);
            vkGetPhysicalDeviceSurfaceFormatsKHR(device, surface, &formatCount, details.formats.data());
        }

        uint32_t presentModeCount;
        vkGetPhysicalDeviceSurfacePresentModesKHR(device, surface, &presentModeCount, nullptr);

        if (presentModeCount != 0) {
            details.presentModes.resize(presentModeCount);
            vkGetPhysicalDeviceSurfacePresentModesKHR(device, surface, &presentModeCount, details.presentModes.data());
        }

        return details;
    }

    bool isDeviceSuitable(VkPhysicalDevice device) {
        QueueFamilyIndices indices = findQueueFamilies(device);

        bool extensionsSupported = checkDeviceExtensionSupport(device);

        bool swapChainAdequate = false;
        if (extensionsSupported) {
            SwapChainSupportDetails swapChainSupport = querySwapChainSupport(device);
            swapChainAdequate = !swapChainSupport.formats.empty() && !swapChainSupport.presentModes.empty();
        }

        VkPhysicalDeviceFeatures supportedFeatures;
        vkGetPhysicalDeviceFeatures(device, &supportedFeatures);

        return indices.isComplete() && extensionsSupported && swapChainAdequate  && supportedFeatures.samplerAnisotropy;
    }

    bool checkDeviceExtensionSupport(VkPhysicalDevice device) {
        uint32_t extensionCount;
        vkEnumerateDeviceExtensionProperties(device, nullptr, &extensionCount, nullptr);

        std::vector<VkExtensionProperties> availableExtensions(extensionCount);
        vkEnumerateDeviceExtensionProperties(device, nullptr, &extensionCount, availableExtensions.data());

        std::set<std::string> requiredExtensions(deviceExtensions.begin(), deviceExtensions.end());

        for (const auto& extension : availableExtensions) {
            requiredExtensions.erase(extension.extensionName);
        }

        return requiredExtensions.empty();
    }

    QueueFamilyIndices findQueueFamilies(VkPhysicalDevice device) {
        QueueFamilyIndices indices;

        uint32_t queueFamilyCount = 0;
        vkGetPhysicalDeviceQueueFamilyProperties(device, &queueFamilyCount, nullptr);

        std::vector<VkQueueFamilyProperties> queueFamilies(queueFamilyCount);
        vkGetPhysicalDeviceQueueFamilyProperties(device, &queueFamilyCount, queueFamilies.data());

        int i = 0;
        for (const auto& queueFamily : queueFamilies) {
            if (queueFamily.queueCount > 0 && queueFamily.queueFlags & VK_QUEUE_GRAPHICS_BIT) {
                indices.graphicsFamily = i;
            }

            VkBool32 presentSupport = false;
            vkGetPhysicalDeviceSurfaceSupportKHR(device, i, surface, &presentSupport);

            if (queueFamily.queueCount > 0 && presentSupport) {
                indices.presentFamily = i;
            }

            if (indices.isComplete()) {
                break;
            }

            i++;
        }

        return indices;
    }

    std::vector<const char*> getRequiredExtensions() {
        uint32_t glfwExtensionCount = 0;
        const char** glfwExtensions;
        glfwExtensions = glfwGetRequiredInstanceExtensions(&glfwExtensionCount);

        std::vector<const char*> extensions(glfwExtensions, glfwExtensions + glfwExtensionCount);

        if (enableValidationLayers) {
            extensions.push_back(VK_EXT_DEBUG_UTILS_EXTENSION_NAME);
        }

        return extensions;
    }

    bool checkValidationLayerSupport() {
        uint32_t layerCount;
        vkEnumerateInstanceLayerProperties(&layerCount, nullptr);

        std::vector<VkLayerProperties> availableLayers(layerCount);
        vkEnumerateInstanceLayerProperties(&layerCount, availableLayers.data());

        for (const char* layerName : validationLayers) {
            bool layerFound = false;

            for (const auto& layerProperties : availableLayers) {
                if (strcmp(layerName, layerProperties.layerName) == 0) {
                    layerFound = true;
                    break;
                }
            }

            if (!layerFound) {
                return false;
            }
        }

        return true;
    }

    static std::vector<char> readFile(const std::string& filename) {
        std::ifstream file(filename, std::ios::ate | std::ios::binary);

        if (!file.is_open()) {
            throw std::runtime_error("failed to open file!");
        }

        size_t fileSize = (size_t) file.tellg();
        std::vector<char> buffer(fileSize);

        file.seekg(0);
        file.read(buffer.data(), fileSize);

        file.close();

        return buffer;
    }

    static VKAPI_ATTR VkBool32 VKAPI_CALL debugCallback(VkDebugUtilsMessageSeverityFlagBitsEXT messageSeverity, VkDebugUtilsMessageTypeFlagsEXT messageType, const VkDebugUtilsMessengerCallbackDataEXT* pCallbackData, void* pUserData) {
        std::cerr << "validation layer: " << pCallbackData->pMessage << std::endl;

        return VK_FALSE;
    }
};

int main() {
    HelloTriangleApplication app;

    try {
        app.run();
    } catch (const std::exception& e) {
        std::cerr << e.what() << std::endl;
        return EXIT_FAILURE;
    }

    return EXIT_SUCCESS;
}